What is ラウンドアップ ? Roundup Ready refers to a trademarked line of genetically altered seeds that are resistant to Roundup. These crops are called Roundup Ready.
So, who invented Roundup?
ラウンドアップ , Monsanto chemical chemist and first to discover that Roundup’s active agent was glyphosate in 1970, was the first person to define it as an herbicide. Pre- ラウンドアップ were widely used in the ag industry in the early days. They were sprayed before the crops or weeds emerged. The post-emergent efficiency of glyphosate to control vast amounts of broadleaf weeds was awe-inspiring. This, along with its extraordinary environmental (soil degradation and rapid degradation, etc.) as well as toxicological properties (extremely toxic for mammals (and beneficial organisms) which made it an outstanding product.
What ラウンドアップ was it when Roundup launched?
Roundup(r) was introduced on the market in 1974, as a broad-spectrum herbicide. It quickly became one of the most effective agricultural chemicals in the world. Roundup(r) initially, was used in ditches on railroad tracks and in fields during growth seasons. This allowed farmers the ability to control broadleafweeds and grasses in the soil. In this manner, they could reduce the need to tillage, preserve soil structure, and lessen soil erosion.
Then came the issue of Roundup Ready GMOs.
Monsanto scientists recognized the potential benefits that Roundup(r) which is a recombinant DNA product, might be for farmers following the discoveries made in the 1970s. Ernie Jaworski led a small team that included Steve Rogers, Rob Horsch and myself to address the issue. The first systems to introduce gene into plants were created by this group in the early 1980s. Following that we turned our attention to the development of virusesresistant and insect-resistant and Roundup-resistant crops.
It was discovered that Roundup was able to block the biochemical pathways of plants that create aromatic amino acids. (Both animals and humans aren’t equipped with this pathway, which could explain Roundup’s high degree of mammalian safety). Additionally it quickly broken down by soil microorganisms. Our research had identified both plant- and microbial genetics that conferred more tolerance to herbicides. Roundup Ready plants were first tested on the field by USDA in 1987. It was a genetically altered version of tomato plants that were resistant to Roundup. Then, a few years later, the Roundup Ready trait is a result of a bacterial infection and was isolated.
Let’s use soybeans for an example. We first need to answer two questions. What are Roundup Ready soybeans? And how do they get made? Roundup Ready soybeans are soybeans genetically engineered that have had their DNA altered so that they can withstand Roundup’s herbicide glyphosate. These soybeans are tolerant to glyphosate since each soybean seed has had the gene for Roundup Ready implanted into it before it is planted. This allows farmers to apply Roundup Ready herbicides that eliminate weeds, but not their crops.
Roundup Ready crop introductions in 1996 have had a profound impact on agricultural science. Roundup resistance was quickly accepted by farmers, and the adoption of Roundup Ready was swift. Today, more than 90 percent of U.S. soybeans are grown with an herbicide-resistant biotech gene tolerance. Roundup Ready crops were easy to use and improved weed management systems. This resulted in increased yields of crops. Also, it reduced tillage, reduced equipment costs, and made harvesting easier due to fewer herbicides. An environmental major benefit is the increased adoption of conservation cultivation: farmers can cut down on energy consumption as well as GHG emissions, and also improve soil structure, while also preserving soil structure. This was equivalent of eliminating 28.4 Billion tonnes of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or 12.4 M vehicles off the road for a single year (Source . ラウンドアップ .